Societies, Organizations, Libraries

  • The Design Society
  • Engineering Design Challenges (NASA)
  • Design Research Society
  • Design History Society
  • American Society of Mechanical Engineering
  • Intl. Society for Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization
  • Swedish Morphological Society

    Design Approaches

    1. Axiomatic Design
    2. Formal Methods in Design
    3. Decision Based Design
    4. Analogy-based Design
    5. Morphological Design
    6. Multidisciplinary Optimization (MDO)
    7. Modular Design
    8. Platform Based Design
    9. Component-Based Design
    10. Grammatical Design
    11. Methods of Artificial Intelligence
    12. Hierarchical Design
    13. Optimization
    14. TRIZ
    15. Parameter Space Investigation (PSI Method)
    16. Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization
    17. Simulation-Based Design
    18. Hierarchical Morphological Multicriteria Design (HMMD) Approach
    19. Multi-level logic synthesis
    20. System Level Design
    21. Hybrid Methods
    22. Biologically inspired design

    Additional Systems Issues

    1. Computer-Aided Design
    2. Design/Engineering Frameworks
    3. Design/Engineering Environments
    4. Creativity in Design
    5. Engineering and Design Education


  • Journal of Engineering Design (Taylor & Francis)
  • Research in Engineering Design (Springer)
  • Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (Springer)
  • CoDesign (Taylor & Francis)
  • Journal of Design Research (Inderscience)
  • Design Studies (Elsevier)
  • Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing (AI EDAM)
  • Int. Journal of Design and Process Science (IOS Press)
  • Engineering Optimization
  • AI in Engineering
  • Advances in Complex Systems
  • Computer-Aided Design (Elsevier)
  • IEEE Trans. on SMC
  • Central Eur. J. of Engineering (Springer)
  • Advances in Engineering Software (Elsevier)
  • Advanced Engineering Informatics (Elsevier)
  • J. of Mechanical Design
  • Computational Optimization and Applications
  • AIAA Journal
  • Optimization and Engineering

    Basic Applications

    1. Mechanical engineering
    2. Aerospace engineering
    3. Chemical engineering
    4. Manufacturing engineering
    5. Material engineering
    6. Computer systems
    8. Software engineering
    9. Information systems engineering
    10. VLSI design
    11. Civil engineering
    12. Architecture
    13. Communication systems engineering
    14. Socio-economical systems
    15. Environmental/ecological systems
    16. Military / defense systems
    17. Product platforms and product families

    Research Centers & Groups

  • Cambridge Engineering Design Centre (UK)
  • Segal Design Institute (Northwestern Univ.)
  • School of Engineering Design & Technology (Univ. of Bradford, UK )
  • MIT Design Laboratory
  • Engineering Design Centre, Newcastle University
  • Prof. John S. Gero (Volgenau School of Information Technology and Engineering, George Mason Univ.)
  • Prof. Clive L. Dym (Dept. of Engineering, Harvey Mudd College & Univ. of Massachusetts at Amherst)
  • Design Methodology Group (Delft University of Technology)
  • Prof. Karl T. Ulrich (Operations and Information Management Dept., The Wharton School, Univ. of Pennsylvania)
  • Prof. Erik K. Antonsson, Caltech Engineering Design Research Lab.
    (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology)

  • Prof. Alice M. Agogino (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of California at Berkeley)
  • Prof. John K. Gershenson (Michigan Techn. Univ.)
  • Prof. Panos Y. Papalambros (Optimal Design lab., Univ. of Michigan)
  • Prof. Jonathan Cagan (Intergrated Design Innovation Group 'IDI group', CMU)
  • Prof. Mary Frecken & Prof. Tim Simpson (Engineering Design & Optimization Group, Penn State Univ.)
  • Prof. Robert B. Stone
    * Dept. of Interdisciplinary Engineering, Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology

    * DesignEngineeringLab, Oregon State Univ.
  • Prof. Yoram Reich (Tel-Aviv Univ., Israel)
  • Prof. Steven D. Eppinger (Engineering Systems Division & Sloan School of Management, MIT)
  • Systems Realization Laboratory (School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Inst. of Technology)
  • Prof. Irem Y. Turem (Complex Engineered Systems Design 'CESD' Lab.),
    School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University

  • Enterprise Systems Optimization Lab - ESOL (Prof. Harrison M. Kim, Dept. of Industrial and Enterprise Systems Engineering, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign)
  • Multidisciplinary Optimization Branch, NASA Langley Research Center (Dr. Natalia Alexandrov, etc.)
  • Sructural and Multidisciplinary Optimization Group (Prof. Rafael T. Haftka & Prof. Nam-Ho Kim; (Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Univ. of Florida)
  • Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (Georgia Tech)
  • Prof. Frank Schweitzer, Chair of System Design, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
  • Prof. Matthew I. Campbell (Automated Design Lab.), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, The Univ. of Texas at Austin
  • Prof. Ahmed K. Noor, Center for Advanced Engineering Environments CAEE (Frank Batten College of Eng. & Technol., Old Dominion Univ., Virginia, USA; funding from NASA)
  • Prof. Gul E. Okudan Kremer, Applied Decision Analysis for Improved Products & Systems Group (ADAPS Group), School of Engineering Design, Technology and Professional Programs, PennState
  • Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Dept. of EE and CS, California Univertsity at Berkeley (multi-level logic synthesis, design methodology, hybrid systems, embedded systems, VLSI design, Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems 'iCyPhy', wireless sensor networks, systems of systems, etc.)
  • Prof. Richard M. Murray, Control and Dynamical Systems, California Institute of Technology (Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems 'iCyPhy', Networked Control Systems, Automatic synthesis of control protocols, etc.)
  • Intelligence Manufacturing Systems (IMS) Centre (Prof. Hoda ElMaraghy, Waguih ElMaraghy, Canada, Univ. of Windsor, Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering), reconfigurable and changeable systems, etc.
  • Prof. Dimitri Mavris, Aerospace Systems Design Lab. (School of Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Georgia Inst. of Tehcnology)
  • The Berkeley Inst. of Design (research group - interdisciplinary approach to design for the 21th century) (Univ. of California at Berkeley)
  • Center for Integrated Facility Engineering (Stanford Univ.)
  • The NSF Center for e-Design and the Realization of Engineered Products and Systems
  • Prof. Jim Waldo, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University
  • Institute of Design at Stanford, Stanford University
  • Inst. of Complex Engineered Systems, College of Engineering, CMU
  • Prof. Bruce Hanington, School of Design, CMU
  • Prof. Vijay Kumar, IIT Design Institute, Illinois Institute of Technology

    Projects and Programs

  • Decision Based Design - Open Workshop (Univ. of New York at Buffalo)
  • Systems Integration for Manufacturing Applications (SIMA) Program (NIST)

    Educational Programs

  • Stanford Design Program
  • Cambridge Engineering Design Centre (UK)
  • Penn State Engineering Design (Engineering Design Program, School of Engineering Design, Technology, and Professional Programs, College of Engineering)
  • Faculty of Engineering and Design, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada
  • Segal Design Institute at Northwestern Univ.
  • Univ. of Bristol, Faculty of Engineering
  • Univ. of Bath, Faculty of Engineering & Design
  • Western Michigan Univ.; College of Engineering; Engineering Design, Manufacturing and Management Systems Department
  • School of Engineering Design & Technology (Univ. of Bradford, UK )
  • School of Systems Design Engineering, Univ. of Waterloo )
  • MIT System Design and Management Program
  • Graduate School of System Design and Management (Japan's Keio Univ., Tokyo)
  • Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD)
  • "Integrated Product and Process Design" program, College of Engineering, Univ. of Florida


  • Books
    1. N.M. Alexandrov, and M.Y. Hussaini, (Eds.), Multidisciplinary Design Optimization: State of the Art (Proceedigns in Applied Mathematics Series; No. 80), SIAM, 1997.
    2. G.S. Altshuller, Creativity as Exact Science. The Theory of the Solution of Inventive Problems. London: Gordon and Breach Science Publisher, 1984.
    3. E.K. Antonsson, J. Cagan, (Eds.). Formal Engineeirng Design Synthesis. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001.
    4. M. Avriel, M.J. Rijckaert, D.J. Wilde (Eds.). Optimization and Design. Prentice-Hall, 1973.
    5. M. Avriel, R.S. Dembo (Eds.). Mathematical Programming Studies in Engineering Optimization. North-Holland, 1979.
    6. F. Balarin et al., Hardware-Software Co-Design of Embedded Systems: The POLIS Approach. Norwell, MA, Kluwer, 1998.
    7. G. Booch, Object Oriented Development. Redwood City, California: The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company, 1991.
    8. D.M. Buede, The Engineering Design of Systems: Models and Methods. New York: J.Wiley and Sons, 1999.
    9. C. West Churchman, The Design of Inquiring Systems: Basic Concepts of Systems and Organization. Basic Books, New York, 1971.
    10. Nigel Cross, Engineering Design Methods: Strategies for Product Design. Wiley, 4th ed., 2008.
    11. G.E. Dieter, L.C. Schmidt, Engineerign Design. 5th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2013.
    12. Clive L. Dym, Patrick Little, Engineering Design: A Project Based Introduction. Wiley, 3rd ed., 2008.
    13. Arvid Eide, Roland Jenison, Larry Northup, Lane Mashaw, Introduction To Engineering Design and Problem Solving. McGraw-Hill, 2001.
    14.Hoda A. ElMaraghy, (ed), Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems. Springer, London, 2009.
    15. Hoda A. ELMaraghy, Waguih H. ELMaraghy, (Eds), Advances in Design. Springer, 2006.
    16. J.S. Gero, (ed.) Design Computing and Cognition'12, Springer, 2012.
    17. J.S. Gero, (ed.) Design Computing and Cognition'14, Springer, 2014.
    18. Bruce Hanington, Bella Martin, Universal Methods of Design: 100 Ways to Research Complex Problems, Develop Innovative Ideas, and Design Effective Solutions. Beverly, MA: Rockport Publishers, 2012.
    19. J.C. Jones, Design Methods. 2nd ed., Wiley, New York, 1992.
    20. A. Karniel, Y. Reich, Managing the Dynamics of New Product Development Processes: The New Product Lifecycle Management. Springer, 2011.
    21. Vijay Kumar, 101 Design Methods: A Structured Approach for Driving Innovation in Your Organization. NJ: Wiley, 2012.
    22. A. Kusiak, Engineering Design: Products, Processes, and Systems. New York: Academic Press, 1999.
    23. M.Sh. Levin, Combinatorial Engineering of Decomposable Systems, Kluwer (now: Springer), 1998.
    24. M.Sh. Levin, Composite Systems Decisions. Springer, 2006.
    25. M.Sh. Levin, Decision Support Technology for Modular Systems. Electronic book. 341 pp. (in Russian). 2013.
    26. M.Sh. Levin, Modular System Design and Evaluation. Springer, 2015 (Due: Sep. 2014).
    27. Mark W. Maier, and Eberhardt Rechtin, The Art of Systems Architecting. 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2000.
    28. Michael A. Orloff, Inventive Thinking through TRIZ: Practical Guide. Springer, 2nd ed., 2006.
    29. G. Pahl, W. Beitz, J. Feldhusen, K.-H. Grote, Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach. Springer, 3rd ed., 2007.
    30. Tom Ritchey, Wicked Problems - Social Messes. Decision Support Modelling with Morphological Analysis. Springer, 2011.
    31. N.F.M. Roozenburg, J. Eekels, Product Design, Fundamentals and Methods, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1995.
    32. M. Shaw, D. Garlan, Software Archicture: Perspectives on an Emerging Disicpline. New York: Prentice hall, 1996.
    33. Timothy W. Simpson, Jianxin (Roger) Jiao, Zahed Siddique, (Eds.), Product Platform Family and Product Platform Design: Methods and Applicaitons. Springer, New York, 2006.
    34. Timothy W. Simpson, Jianxin (Roger) Jiao, Zahed Siddique, Katja Holtta-Otto, (Eds.), Advances in Product Platform Family and Product Platform Design: Methods and Applicaitons. Springer, New York, 2014.
    35. J.N. Siddall, Optimal Engineering Design. CRC Press, 1982.
    36. Nam P. Suh, Axiomatic Design: Advances and Applications. Oxford Univ. Press, 2001.
    37. Nam P. Suh, The Principles of Design. Oxford Univ. Press, 1990.
    38. David G. Ullman, The Mechanical Design Process. 4th ed., McGraw Hill, 2009.
    39. Karl T. Ulrich, Steven D. Eppinger, Product Design and Development. 2nd ed., Irwin McGraw-Hill, Boston, 2000.
    40. G.M. Weinberg, D. Weinberg, General Principles in System Design. Dorset House Publishing Company, 1988.
    41. E. Yourdan, Techniques of Program Structure and Design. NJ: Prentice-Hall, Englewoods Cliffs, 1975.
    42. F. Zwicky, Discovery Invention, Research Through the Morphological Approach. New York: McMillan, 1969.

  • Basic Papers
    1. C.C. Huang, A. Kusiak, Modularity in Design of Products and Systems.
    IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part A, 28(1), 66-77, 1998.
    2. P.S. Krasnoshekov, V.V. Morozov, V.V. Fedorov, Decomposition in Design Problems.
    Engineering Cybernetics, No. 2, pp. 7-17, 1979 (in Russian).
    3. I.M. Sobol, An Efficient Approach to Multicriteria Optimum Design Problems.
    Surveys on Mathematics in Industry, Vol. 1, pp. 259-281, 1992.
    4. E.A. Sykes, C.C. White, III, Multiobjective Intelligent Computer-Aided Design.
    IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 21,No. 6, pp. 1498-1511, 1989.
    5. Y. Reich, A model of aesthetic judgment in design. Artificial Intelligence in Engineering, 8(2), 141-153, 1993.
    6. C.A. Coello Coello, A.D. Christiansen, MOSES: a multiobjective optimization tool for engineering design. Engineering Optimization, 31, 337-368, 1999.
    7. J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, R.T. Haftka, Multidisciplinary aerospace design otimization: Survey of recent developments. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 14(1), pp. 1-23, 1997.
    8. Jim Waldo, On System Design. Perspectives 2006-6, In an Essay Series Publihsed by Sun Labs.
    Portland, Oregon, Sun Microsystems. Dec. 2006.
    9. D. Braha, Y. Reich, Topological structures for modeling engineering design processes. Research in Engineeirng Design, 14(4), 185-199, 2003.
    10. M.Sh. Levin, Hierarchical morphological multicriteria design of decomposbale systems. Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications, 4(2), 111-117, 1996.
    11. Y. Reich, A. Hatchuel, O. Shai, E. Subrahmanian, A theoretical analysis of creativity methods in engineering design: Casting ASIT with C-K theory.
    J. of Engineeirng Design, 2010.
    12. A. Karniel, Y. Reich, Formalizing the implementation of DSM-based process planning for NPD.
    IEEE Trans. SMC, Part A, 41(3), 476-491, 2011.
    13. D.P. Rutberg, T.L. Shaftel, Product design: Subassemblies for multple markets. Management Science, 18, 220-231, 1971.
    14. U.S. Karmarkar, P. Kubat, Modular product design and product support. Eur. J. of Operational Research, 29(1), 74-82, 1987.
    15. A.K. Goel, S. Vattam, B. Wiltgen, M. Helms, Cognitive, collaborative, conceptual and creative - Four characteristics of the next generation of knowledge-based CAD systems:
    A study in biologically inspired design. CAD, 2011 (in press)
    16. A.K. Noor, Emerging CAE technologies and their role in future ambient intelligence environments. Central Eur. J. of Engineering, 1(1), 2011.
    17. A.K. Noor, S.L. Venneri, ISE: intelligent synthesis environment for future aerospace systems. IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, 23(4), 31-44, 2008
    18. M.Sh. Levin, Four-layer framework for combinatorial optimization problems domain. Advances in Engineering Software, 42(12), 1089-1098, 2011
    (journal site)
    19. M. Campbell, J. Cagan, K. Kotovsky, The A-Design approach to managing automated design synthesis. Research in Engineering Design, 14, 12-24, 2003.
    20. J. Cagan, M.I. Campbell, S. Finger, T. Tomyiyama, A Framework for Computational Design Synthesis: Models and Applications.
    J. of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 5, 171-181, 2005.
    21. J.S. Gero, Creativity, emergence and evolution in design. Knowledge-Based Systems, 9(7), 435-448, 1996.
    22. A.K. Goel, S.R. Bhatta, Use of design patterns in analogy-based design. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 18, 85-94, 2004.
    23. V. Gane, J. Haymaker, Design scenarios: Enabling transparent parametric design spaces. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 26(3), 618-640, 2012.
    24. N. Ozay, U. Topcu, T. Wongpiromsam, R.M. Murray, Distributed synthesis of control protocols for smart camera networks. In: 2011 Int. Conf. on Cyber-Physical Systems (ICCPS), 2011.
    25. Robert K. Brayton, Richard Rudell, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Albert R. Wang, MIS: A Multi-level Logic Optimization System. IEEE Trans. on CAD, No. 6, 1062-1081, Nov. 1987,
    29. Kurt Keutzer, Sharad Malik, A. Richard Newton, Jan M. Rabaey, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, System-Level Design: Orthogonalozation of Concerns and Platform-based Design. IEEE Trans. on CAD of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 19(12), 1523-1542, Dec. 2000.
    30. David J. Pate, Justin Gray, Brian J. German, A graph theoretic approach to problem formulation for multidisciplinary design analysis and optimization. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, Oct. 2013.
    31. M. Kokkolaras, Z.P. Mourelatos, P.Y. Papalambros, Design optimization of hierarchically decomposed multilevel systems under uncertainty. J. of Mechanical Design, 128(2), 503-508, 2006.
    32. E.J. Cramer, J.E. Dennis Jr., P.D. Frank, R.M. Lewis, G.R. Shubin, Problem formulation for multidisciplinary optimization. SIAM J. on Optimization. 4(4), 754-776, 1994.
    33. J.S. Gero, T. McNeill, An approach to the analysis of design protocols. Design Studies, 19, 21-61, 1998.
    34. J.S. Gero, Design prototypes: a knowledge representation schema for design. AI Magazine, 11(4), 26-36, 1990.
    35. J.K.S. Nagel et al, Function-based, biologically inspired concept generation. AI EDAM, 24(4), 521--535, 2010.

  • Surveys & Technical Reports
    1. J. Andersson, A survey of multiobjective optimization in engineering design. Techn. Report: LiTH-IKP-R-1097, Dept. of Mech. Eng., Linkoping University, # 34, 2000.
    2. Joaquim R.R.A. Martins, Andrew B. Lambe, Multidisciplinary Design Optimization: A Survey of Architectures. AIAA Journal, 51(9), 2013, 2049-2075.
    3. J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, R.T. Haftka, Multidisciplinary aerospace design optimization: Survey on recent developments. Structural Optimization. 14(1), 1-23, 1997.
    4. Jim Waldo, On System Design. In: Essay series of Sun Labs, Sub Labs, Dec. 2006.

  • Electronic Preprints
    1. M.Sh. Levin, Morphological methods for design of modular systems (a survey). Electronic preprint. 20 pp., Jan. 9, 2012. [cs.SE]

    2. M.Sh. Levin, Multiset estimates and combinatorial synthesis. Electronic preprint. 30 pp., May 9, 2012. [cs.SY]

    3. M.Sh. Levin, Composite strategy for multicriteria ranking/sorting (methodological issues, examples). Electronic preprint. 24 pp., Nov. 9, 2012. [math.OC]

    4. M.Sh. Levin, Towards design of hierarchy (research survey). Electronic preprint. 36 pp., Dec. 8, 2012. [math.OC]

    5. M.Sh. Levin, Note on combinatorial engineering frameworks for hierarchical modular systems. Electronic preprint. 11 pp., Mar. 29, 2013. [math.OC]

    6. M.Sh. Levin, Improvement/extension of modular systems as combinatorial reengineering (survey). Electronic preprint. 24 pp., Apr. 17, 2013. [cs.AI]

    7. M.Sh. Levin, Note on evaluation of hierarchical modular systems. Electronic preprint. 15 pp., May 21, 2013. [cs.AI]

    8. M.Sh. Levin, Towards Detection of Bottlenecks in Modular Systems. Electronic preprint. 12 pp., June 1, 2013. [cs.AI]

    9. M.Sh. Levin, Towards Multistage Design of Modular Systems. Electronic preprint. 13 pp., June 19, 2013. [cs.AI]

  • DSc Theses
    1. S.P. Kovalev, Theory-Category Models and Methods for Design of Large-scale Information-Management Systems. DSc Thesis, Inst. of Control Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, 2014 (in Russian).

  • PhD Theses
    1. Janel N. Nixon, A Systematic Process for Adaptive Concept Exploration. PhD Thesis,
    School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Inst. of Technology, 2006.
    2. Travis W. Danner, A Formulation of Multidimensional Growth Models for the Assessment and Forecast of Technology Attributes.
    PhD Thesis, School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Inst. of Technology, 2006
    3. James T. Allison, Optimal Partitioning and Coordination Decisions in Decomposition-based Design Optimization. PhD Thesis, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, The Univ. of Michigan, 2008.
    4. L.K. Alberts, YMIR: An Ontology for Engineering Design, PhD-thesis, University of Twente, Enschede, 1993.
    5. L.T.M. Blessing, A process-based approach to computer supported engineering design. PhD thesis, Universiteit Twente, 1994.
    6. S.J. de Boer, Decision Methods and Techniques in Methodical Engineering Design. PhD-thesis, University Twente, 1989.
    7. K. Dorst, Describing design: a comparison of paradigms. PhD-thesis, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft, 1997.
    8. Richard J. Malak, Jr., Using Parameterized Efficient Sets to Model Alternatives for Systems Design Decisions. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Dec. 2008.
    9. R.L. Nagel, A Design Framework for Identifying Automation Opportunities. PhD Thesis, Oregon State Univ., 2011.
    10. R.D. Braun, Collaborative Optimization: An Architecture for Large Scale Distributed Design. PhD thesis, Stanford, CA, 1996.
    11. V.M. Manning, Large Scale Design of Supersonic Aircraft via Collaborative Optimization. PhD thesis, Stanford, CA, 1999.
    12. A.-V. DeMiguel, Two Decomposition Algorithms for Nonconvex Optimization Problems with Global Variables. PhD thesis, Stanford, CA, 2001.
    13. R.E. Perez, A Multidisciplinary Optimization Framework for Flight Dynamics and Control Integration in Aircraft Design. PhD thesis, Univ. of Toronto, 2007.
    14. H.M. Kim, Target Cascading in Optimal System Design. PhD thesis, Univ. of Michigan, 2001.
    15. Katja Holtta-Otto, Modular Product Platform Design. PhD Thesis. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, 2005.
    16. Sonia Vieira, Crucial actions in design. Coping with critical situations taking a Lean Thinking perspective. PhD thesis, Univ. of Porto (Portugal) & Delft Univ. of Technology, 2013.
    17. W.T. Kan, Quantitative Methods for Studing Design Protocols. PhD Thesis, The Univ. of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, 2008.
    18. Zhenghui Sha, Decision-Centric Foundaitons for Complex Systems Engineering and Design. PhD Thesis, Purdue Univ., School of Mech. Eng., 2015.

  • MS Theses
    1. C. Marriage, Automatic Implementaiton of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Architecture Using MDO. MS Thesis,
    Univ. of Toronto, 2008.