Basic Directions

1. System configuration/composing
2. System reconfiguration
3. System configuration analysis
4. Self-reconfigurable systems
5. Self-Assembly
6. Variable structure systems
7. Dynamic (on-line, run-time) system reconfiguration
8. Reoptimization/reconfiguration (restructuring) problems in combinatorial optimization

Basic Applications

1. Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems
2. Configuration of product, product family
3. Configuration of software systems
4. Self-reconfigurable software systems
5. Reconfigurable computing
6. Dynamic system architecture
7. Composing Adaptive Software
8. Control systems
9. Configuration/reconfiguration of distributed systems
10. Dynamic (on-line) system reconfiguration (software, etc.)
11. Web-based services
12. Method/model engineering
13. Bioinformatics
14. Embedded systems
15. Civil engineering and architecture
16. Organizations
17. Combinatorial Chemistry
18. Supply chains systems
19. Combinatorial planning

Research Groups/Researchers

  • NSF Engineering Research Center for Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems (Prof. Yoram Koren, Univ. of Michigan)
  • Intelligence Manufacturing Systems (IMS) Centre (Prof. Hoda ElMaraghy, Waguih ElMaraghy, Canada, Univ. of Windsor, Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering), reconfigurable and changeable systems, etc.
  • Roy Levin (Microsoft Research, Silicon Valley)
  • NSF Center for High-Performance Reconfigurable Computing 'CHREC' (Prof. Alan D. George, Univ. of Florida)
  • Prof. Duncan A. Buell; recongifurable computing (Dept. of CS & Eng., Univ. of South Carolina)
  • Prof. Wayne Luk, run-time recongifurable architecture (Dept. of Computing, Imperial College, London, UK)
  • Prof. David W. Rosen; product family and configuration design (School of Mech. Eng., Georgia Inst. of Technology)
  • Prof. Timo Soininen; system configuration, reconfigurable software product families (Software Business and Eng. Inst., Helsinki Univ. of Technology & Helsinki Business Polytechnic)
  • Prof. Markus Stumptner; knowledge-based configuration and design (School of Computer and Information Science, Univ. of South Australia)
  • Prof. Eugene Freuder; constrains-based approaches, system configuration (Cork Constraint Computation Centre, University College Cork)
  • Prof. Daniel Mailharro; constraint-based approaches to system configuration, preference-based approaches to system configuration (ILOG S.A., France)
  • Prof. Philip K. McKinley (Michigan State Univ.); composing adaptive software in communication systems
  • Prof. M Brian Blake (Dept. of CS, Georgetown Univ.); composition of Web services
  • Dr. Ian Warren (Dept. of CS, Univ. of Auckland, New Zealand); dynamic reconfiguration
  • Dr. Mark Sh. Levin (Inst. for Inform. Transmission Problems, Russian Acad. of Sci.); combinatorial models in system configuration
  • Prof. Kwei-Jay Lin (Dept. of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, Univ. of California, Irvine); The QoS Web Service Composition Project
  • Prof. Hod Lipson, Cornell Computational Synthesis Lab CCSL (Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell Univ.)
  • PipeRench: Carnegie Mellon's Reconfigurable Computer Project (Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, CMU)
  • MISCIC: The DARPA Center for MEMS-Instrumented Intensive Self-Configuring Integrated Circuits (Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, CMU)
  • Prof. Roger J. Jiao (Division of Systems & Engineering Management, Nanyang Technological Univ.)
  • Knowledge Systems, AI Laboratory, Stanford University


  • Comm. of the ACM
  • ACM Trans. on Reconfigurable Technology and Systems
  • Res. in Engineering Design
  • J. of the ACM
  • IEEE Intelligent Systems
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Applied Intelligence
  • Advanced Engineering Infromatics
  • ACM Comput. Surv.
  • IEEE Trans. on SMC
  • IEEE Intell. Syst.& Their Appl.
  • IEEE Circuits and Devices
  • Expert Systems with Applications
  • Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering
  • J. of Mechanical Design
  • J. of Intelligent Manufacturing
  • Int. J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
  • Computers & Structures
  • Computers in Industry
  • IEEE Aerospace and Elect. Syst. Magazine
  • J. of Systems Architecture
  • Int. J. of Embedded Systems
  • J. of Mathematical Modeling and Algorithms
  • Computer-Aided Design
  • Automation and Remote Control
  • Advances in Engineering Software
  • Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Sciences
  • Future Generation Computer Systems
  • Industrial Management and data Systems


  • Books
    1. Ch. Bobda, Introduction to Reconfigurable Computing. Springer, 2007.
    2. C. Chandra, J. Grabis, Supply Chain Configuration. Springer, New York, 2007.
    3. Rudy Deca, Meta-CLI Configuration Model for Network Device Management: bottom-up approach for high-level, automated network service configuration.
    LAP - Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbrucken, Germany, Apr. 2010.
    4. Maya B. Gokhale, Paul S. Graham, Reconfigurable Computing. Accelerating Computation with Field-Programmable Gate Arrays. Springer, 2005.
    5. Allan Heydon, Roy Levin, Tim Mann, and Yuan Yu, Software Configuration Management Using Vesta. Springer, 2006.
    6. M.Sh. Levin, Composite Systems Decisions. Springer, 2006.
    7. Mark Sh. Levin, Decision Support Technology for Modular Systems. Electronic book. 341 pp. (in Russian). 2013.
    8. Mark Sh. Levin, Modular System Design and Evaluation. Springer, 373 p., 2015 (Due: Sep. 2014).
    9. M. Shaw, D. Garlan, Software Architecture: Perspectives on an Emerging Discipline. New York: Prentice Hall, 1996.
    10. M. Stefik, Introduction to Knowledge Systems, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, 1995.
    11. A.S.I. Zinober, Variable Structure and Lyapunov Control. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, vol. 193, Springer, 1994.

  • Collective Monographs
    1. J.M.P. Cardoso, M. Hubner (eds), Reconfigurable Computing: From FRGAs to Hardware/Software Codesign. Springer, 2011.
    2. Hoda A. ElMaraghy (ed), Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems. Springer, London, 2009.
    3. X. Yu, J.-X. Xu, (Eds.), Variable Structure Systems: Towards the 21st Century. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, vol. 274, Springer, 2002.

  • Proceesings, Journal Special Issues
    1. J. Tiihonen, A. Felfernig, M. Zanker, T. Mannisto,(Eds.), Proc. of Workshop on Configuration Systems, The 18th Eur. Conf. on AI, Patras, Greece, 2008.
    2. IEE Proceedings - Computer and Digital Techniques, 147(3), 2000 (Special Issue on Reconfigurable Systems).
    3. Proc. of the 8th Reconfigurable Architectures Workshop (RAW 2001), San Francisco, 2001.
    4. Int. J. of Embedded Systems (IJES), 2005, vol. 1, no. 3/4, Special issue on Advances in Reconfigurable Architectures - Part 1 (Guest Editors: Prof. Jurgen Becker, Dr. Serge Vernalde)
    5. Int. J. of Embedded Systems (IJES), 2006, vol. 2, no. 1/2, Special issue on Advances in Reconfigurable Architectures - Part 2 (Guest Editors: Prof. Jurgen Becker, Dr. Serge Vernalde)
    6. B. Falting, E.C. Freuder, Special issue on Configuration. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 14(4), 29-85, 1998.

  • Surveys
    1. Z. Bi, S. Lang, W. Shen, L. Wang, Reconfigurable manufacturing systems: the state of the art. Int. J. of Production Research, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 967-992, 2008.
    2. Z.M. Bi, L. Wang, S.Y.T. Lang, Current status of reconfigurable assembly systems. Int. J. of Manufacturing Research, 2(3), 303-328, 2007.
    3. K. Bondalapati, V.K. Prasanna, Reconfigurable computing systems. Proc. of the IEEE, 90(7), 1201-1217, 2002.
    4. C. Bozarth, C. McDermott, Configurations in manufacturing strategy: A review and directions for future research. J. of Operations Management, 16(3), 427-439, 1998.
    5. Katherina Compton, Scott Hauck, Reconfigurable Computing: a survey of systems and software. ACM Computing Surveys, 34(2), 171-210, June 2002.
    6. R. Conradi, B. Westfechtel, Versions models for software configuration management. ACM Comput. Surv., 30(2), 232-282, 1998.
    7. S.V. Emelyanov, Variable structure systems as a gateway to new types of feedback structures. Proc. of the 18th IFAC World Congress, Milano, Italy, Sept. 747-755, 2011.
    8. Philip Garcia, katherine Compton, Michael Schulte, Emily Blem, Wenyin Fu., An overview of reconfigurable hardware in embedded systems (web). EURASIP J. on Embedded Systems, 1-19, art. ID 56320, 2006.
    9. M. Heiskala, J. Tiihonen, K.-S. Paloheimo, A. Anderson, Mass customization with configurable products and connfigurators: A review of benefits and challenges.
    In: Blecker T., Friedrich G. (Eds.), Mass Customization Information Systems in Business, Idea Group, London, 2007.
    10. J. Jiao, T.W. Simpson, Z. Siddique, Product Family Design and Platform-Based Product Development: A State-of-the-Art Review.
    J. of Intelligent Manufacturing, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 5-29, 2007.
    11. Y. Koren, U. Heisel, F. Jovane, T. Moriwaki, G. Pritschow, G. Ulsoy, H. Van Brussel, Reconfigurable manufacturing systems.
    CIRP ANNALS - Manufacturing Technology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 527-540, 1999.
    12. S. Lange, M. Middendorf, Multi task hyperreconfigurable architectures: models and reconfiguration problems. Int. J. of Embedded Systems, vol. 1, no. 3/4, pp. 154-164, 2005.
    13. M.Sh. Levin, Combinatorial optimization in system configuration design. Autom. and Remote Control, 70(3), 519-561, 2009.
    Concurrently, basic Russian version:
    M.Sh. Levin, Combinatorial optimization in system configuration design. Electronic Scientific Journal "Information Processes", 8(4), 256-300, 2008 (in Russian).
    14. M.Sh. Levin, Towards System Configuration Design. Int. Conf. on Complex Systems ICCS 2007 (New England Complex Systems Inst.),
    InterJournal Complex Systems, Paper No. 2162

    15. M.G. Mehrabi, A.G. Ulsoy, Y. Koren, P. Heytler, Trends and perspectives in flexible and reconfigurable manufacturing systems.
    J. of Intelligent Manufacturing, 13(2), 1135-146, 2002.
    16. J. Rao, X. Su, A Survey of Automated Web Service Composition Methods. Proc. of First Workshop on Semantic Web Services and Web Process Composition, July 2004.
    17. D. Sabin, R. Weigel, Product configuration frameworks - a survey. IEEE Intell. Syst. & Their Appl., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 42-49, 1998.
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    19. B. Wielinga, G. Schreiber, Configuration-design problem solving. IEEE Expert: Intell. Syst. and Their Applications, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 49-56, 1997.

  • Some Basic Papers
    1. V. Barker, D. O'Connor, Expert system for configuration at digital: Xcon and beyond. Comm. of the ACM, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 298-318, 1989.
    2. O. Berman, N. Ashrafi, Optimization models for reliability of modular software syhstems. IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering, 19(11), 1119-1123, 1993.
    3. K. Bondalapati, V.K. Prasanna, Reconfigurable computing: Architectures, models and algorithms. Current Sci., vol. 78, no. 7, pp. 828-837, 2000.
    4. B. Corbett, D.W. Rosen, A configuration design based method of platform commonization for product families. AI EDAM, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 21-39, 2004.
    5. C.C. Huang, A.P. Kusiak, Modularity in Design of Products and Systems. IEEE Trans. on SMC, Part A, 28(1), 66-77, 1998.
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    7. Y.-H. Lee, K.G. Shin, Optimal reconfiguration strategy for a degradable multimodule computing system. J. of the ACM. 34(2), 326-348, Aug. 1987.
    8. M.Sh. Levin, Modular system synthesis: Example for composite packaged software. IEEE Trans. on SMC, Part C, 35(4), 544-553, 2005.
    9. M.L. Maher, Process models for design synthesis. AI Magazine, 11(4), 49-58, 1990.
    10. J. McDermott, R1: A rule-based configurer of computer systems. Artificial Intelligence, 19(2), pp. 39-88, 1982.
    11. P.K. McKinley, S.M. Sadjadi, E.P. Kasten, B.H.C. Cheng, Composing adaptive software. IEEE Computer, 37(7), 56-64, 2004.
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    13. D. Sabin, E.C. Freuder, Configuration as composite constraint satisfaction. Proc. of the Artif. Intell. and Manuf. Research Planning Workshop, 1996, USA.
    14. Z. Siddique, D.W. Rosen, On combinatorial design spaces for the configuration design of product families. AI EDAM, 15(2), pp. 91-108, 2001.
    15. T. Soininen, J. Tiihonen, T. Mannisto, R. Sulonen, Towards a general ontology of configuration. AI EDAM, vol. 12. no. 4, 357-372, 1998.
    16. K. Schierholt, Process configuration: Combining the principles of product configuration and process planning. AI EDAM, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 411-424, 2001.
    17. X. Tang, C. Jiang, M. Zhou, Automatic Web service composition based on Horn clauses and Petri nets. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(10), 13024-13031, 2011.
    18. K.S. Trivedi, R.E. Kinicki, A model for computer configuration design. Computer, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 47-54, Apr. 1980.

  • Papers
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    2. R.S. Allgayer, C.E. Pereira, Synthesis of wireless sensor network, reconfigurable, from SensorML. In: Proc. of Workshop on Sensor Networks and Applications WSeNA 2008, Gramado, Brazil, 2008.
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    4. P. Balbiani, F. Cheikh, G. Feuillade, Algorithms and Complexity of Automata Synthesis by Asynchronous Orchesttration With Applications to Web Services Composition. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science. 229(3), 3-18, 2009.
    5. Z.M. Bi, L. Wang, Optimal design of reconfigurable parallel machining systems. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 25(6), 951-961, 2009.
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    7. M.B. Blake, W. Cheung, A. Wombacher, Web Services Discovery and Composition Systems. Int. J. of Web Services Research, 2007.
    8. M.B. Blake, Decomposing Composition: Service-Oriented Software Engineers. IEEE Computer, 24(6), 2007.
    9. D.A. Buell, J.P. Davis, G. Quan, S. Akella, S. Devarkal, P. Kancharla, E.A. Michalski, H.A. Wake, Experiences with a reconfigurable computer. Proc. "Engineering of Reconfigurable Systems and Algorithms", Las Vegas, Nevada, 21-24 June 2004.
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    81. M. Yim, W.-M. Shen, B. Salemi, D. Rus, M. Moll, H. Lipson, E. Klavins, G.S. Chirickjian, Modular self-reconfigurable robotic systems.
    IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, 14(1), 43-52, 2007.
    82. M. Younas, K.-M. Chao, C. Laing, Composition of web services in distributed service oriented design activities. Advanced Engineering Informatics, vol. 19, no. 2, 2005, 143-153.
    83. T. Yu, K.-J. Lin, Service selection algorithms for Web services selection with end-to-end QoS constraints. J. of Information Systems and E-Business Management 3(2), pp. 103-126, 2005.
    84. T. Yu, Y. Zhang, K.-J. Lin, Efficient algorithms for Web services selection with end-to-end QoS constraints. ACM Trans. on the Web 1(1), art. no. 6, 2007.
    85. Q.-K. Yuan, M.-T. Zhang, Y.-P. Shi, An eCommerce-Oriented Product Configuration Design System Based on Web. Proc. of the 2009 Int. Symp. on Web Information Systems and Applications (WISA'09), Nanchang, P.R. China, May 22-24, 414-413, 2009.
    86. L. Zhang, J. Jiao, Modeling production configuration using nested colored object-oriented Petri-nets with changeable structures. J. of Intelligent Manufacturing, 20(4), 359-378, 2009.
    87. V. Zykov, H. Lipson, Experimental design for stochastic three-dimensional reconfiguration of modular robots. IROS-2007, Self-Reconfigurable Robotics Workshop, 2007.
    88. Guy Gogniat, Tilman Wolf, Wayne Burleson, Jean-Philippe Diguet, Lilian Bossuet, Romain Vaslin, Reconfigurable Hardware for High-Security/High-Performance Embedded Systems: The SAFES Perspective. IEEE Trans. on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, 16(2), 144-155, Feb. 2008.
    89. Sumi Y. Choi, Jonathan S. Turner, Tilman Wolf, Configuring sessions in programmable networks. Computer Networks, 41(2),269-284, Feb. 2003.
    90. M. Kaminsky, P. Medvedev, M. Milanic, Complexity of independent set reconfiguability problems. Theoretical Computer Sceince, 439, 9-15, 2012.
    91. B. Escoffier, M. Milanic, V.T. Paschos, Simple and fast reoptimization for the Steiner tree problem. Algorithmic Operations Research, 4(2), 86-94, 2009.

  • Research Reports, Technical Reports
    1. Allan Heydon, Roy Levin, Tim Mann, and Yuan Yu, The Vesta Software Configuration Management System. Research Report 177, Compaq Systems Research Center, Palo Alto, CA
    2. Allan Heydon, Roy Levin, Tim Mann, and Yuan Yu, The Vesta Approach to Software Configuration Management. Research Report 168, Compaq Systems Research Center, Palo Alto, CA
    3. Chris Hanna, Roy Levin, The Vesta Language for Configuration Management. Research Report 107, Compaq Systems Research Center, Palo Alto, CA
    4. Roy Levin, Paul McJones, The Vesta approach to precise configuration of large software systems. Research Report 105, Compaq Systems Research Center, Palo Alto, CA.
    5. J. Peer, Web Service Composition as AI Planning - a Survey. Technical Report, Univ. of St. Gallen, Switzerland, 2005.
    6. Zhuming M. Bi, Sherman Y.T. Lang, Weiming Shen, Lihui Wang, Reconfigurable manufacturing systems: the state of the art. Technical Report IMTI-XP-530, Institute for Research and Construction, National Research Council of Canada, May 2007.
    7. Olga Zlydareva, Reconfiguration and reprogramming of the baseband level by software defined radio for WiMAX and UMTS multi-standards terminals. Technical Report # DIT-07-043, Univ. of Trento, Dept. of Informaiton and Communication Technology, Jan. 2007.

  • Electronic Preprints
    1. Paul S. Bonsma, Shortest path reconfiguration is PSPACE-hard. Electronic preprint. Sep. 2010.

    2. M.Sh. Levin, Restructuring in combinatorial optimization. Electronic preprint. 11 pp., Febr. 8, 2011. [cs.DS]

    3. M.Sh. Levin, Improvement/extension of modular systems as combinatorial reengineering (survey). Electronic preprint. 24 pp., Apr. 17, 2013. [cs.AI]

    4. M.Sh. Levin, Towards Multistage Design of Modular Systems. Electronic preprint. 13 pp., June 19, 2013. [cs.AI]

  • PhD Dissertations
    1. M. Brian Blake, Agent-based Workflow Modeling for Distributed Component Configuration and Coordination. PhD Dissertation, George Mason Univ., 1999.
    2. A. Haselbock, Knowledge-based Configuration and Advanced Constraints Technology,
    PhD Dissertation, Institut fur Informationssysteme, Technische Universitat Wien, 1993.
    3. S.R. Mitchell, Dynamic Configuration of Distributed Multimedia Components. PhD Thesis, Univ. of London, 2000.
    4. Ian Warren, A Model for Dynamic Configuration with Preserves Application Interprety. PhD Thesis, CS Department, Lancaster Univ., 2000.
    5. T. Soininen, An Approach to Knowledge Representation and Reasoning for Product Configuration Tasks. PhD Thesis, Dept. of CS and Eng., Helsinki Univ. of Technology, 2000.
    6. T. Mannisto, A Conceptual Modelling Approach to Product Families and Their Evolution. PhD Thesis, Dept. of CS and Eng., Helsinki Univ. of Technology, 2000.
    7. K. Bondalapati, Modeling and mapping for dynamically recponfigurable hybrid architecture. PhD Dissertation, Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, May 2001.
    8. A. DeHon, Reconfiguravle architectures for general purpose computing. PhD Dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, May 1996.
    9. Hayden Kwok-Hay So, BORPH: An Operating System for FPGA-Based Reconfigurable Computers. PhD Thesis, Univ. of California, Berkeley, 2008.
    10. Kevin Brandon Camera, Efficient Programming of Reconfigurable hardware through Direct Verification. PhD Thesis, Univ. of California, Berkeley, 2008.
    11. Kunal Verma, Configuration and Adaptation of Semantic Web Processes. PhD Thesis, Dept. of CS, The Univ. of Georgia, Aug. 2006.
    12. V. Poladian, Tailoring Configuration to User's Tasks under Uncertainty. PhD thesis, CMU, Technical Report CMU-CS-08-121, April 2008.
    13. Z.M. Bi, On Adaptive Robot Systems for Manufacturing Applucations. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Saskatchewan, Canada, 2002.
    14. I.-Ming Chen, Theory and Applications of Modular Reconfigurable Robotic Systems. Ph.D. Thesis, Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Inst. of Technology, USA, 1994.
    15. G. Erixon, Modular function deployment - a method for product modularization. Doctoral Thesis, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm, 1998.
    16. C. Leger, Automated Synthesis and Optimization of Robot Configurations: An Evolutionary Approach. Ph.D. Thesis, CMU, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 1999.
    17. Khalid Alodhaibi, Decision-guided Recommenders with Composite Alternatives. PhD Thesis, George Mason University, School of Information Technology and Engineering, Fairfax, 2011.
    18. Pedro Ferreira, An Agent-Based Self-Configuration Methodology for Modular Assembly Systems. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Nottingham, April 2011.
    19. Olga Zlydareva, Reconfiguable and Reprogrammable Multi-Standard Mobile Terminal Baseband Level Based on Software Defined Radio Module for WiMAX and UMTS Protocols. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Trento, Italy, 2009.
    20. Anat Aharoni, Framework for Supporting Situational Method Engineering Activities. PhD Thesis, Univ. of Haifa, Israel, 2009.
    21. Eeva Jarvenpaa, Capability-based Adaptation of Production Systems in Changing Environment. Thesis, Doctor of Science in Technology, Tampere Univ. of Technology, 2012.

  • MS Theses
    1. Nathan P. Young, A Co-evolutionary Multi-Agent Approach for Designing the Architecture of Reconfigurable Manufacturing Machines.
    MS Thesis, School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Aug. 2008.
    2. A. Aliakbargolkar (Alessandro Golkar), Preliminary Design of Satellites Configuration and Structures.
    MS Thesis, Univ. of Roma "La Sapienza", Italy, 2008.
    3. Vinicius Tavares PETRUCCI, A framework for supporuitng dynamical adaptation of power-aware web server clusters.
    MS thesis, Graduate School of Computation, Fluminense Federal Unversity, Brasil, 2008.
    4. Greg Reshko, Localization techniques for synthetic reality. MS thesis, CMU, 2004.
    5. B. Corbett, Configuration design methods and mathematics for product families. MS Thesis, Gergia Inst. of Technology, 2003.
    6. O. Aydin, Automated web service composition with the event calculus. MS Thesis, Dept. of Computer Engineering, METU, Ankara, 2005.
    7. Yan Haung, Fast Reconfiguration Algorithm Development for Shipboard Power Systems. MS Thesis, Missisippi State Univ., 2006.
    8. Dani Joseph George, Concept Generation Using Morphological and Options Matrices. MS Thesis, Mechanical Engineering, the Graduate School of Clemson Univ., Dec. 2012.