Societies and Organizations

  • Synthesis Engineering Education Coalition
  • National Coordination Office for Computing, Information, and Communications (including Integration for Manufacturing)
  • Swedish Morphological Society


    1. Morphological Analysis (Zwicky, 1969)
    2. Decomposition Synthesis for Optimal Systems Design (Dept. of ME, Univ. of Michigan)
    3. Formal methods for design (Braha and Maimon, 1998; Buede, 1999; Gero and Sudweeks, 1996; Kusiak, 1999; etc.)
    4. Axiomatic design aproaches
    5. Optimization on the basis of complex mixed integer non-linear programming (e.g., design / synthesis in chemical engineering) (Floudas, 1995; Grossman, 1990; etc.).
    6. Non-linear multicriteria (multiobjective) optimization (Miettinen, 1999; Statnikov, 1995; Steuer, 1986; etc.).
    7. Multidisciplinary optimization in aerospace and structural engineering (Alexandrov and Hussaini, 1997; Statnikov, 1999; etc.).
    8. Parameter Space Investigation (PSI) for the design of various complex systems and financial planning (Sobol, 1992; Statnikov and Matusov, 1995; Statnikov, 1999; etc.).
    9. Various methods of global optimization (Floudas and Pardalos, 1996; Floudas, 1999; etc.).
    10. Hierarchical system design (Booch, 1991; Harhalakis et al., 1992; Krasnoshekov et al., 1979; Liebish and Jain, 1992; Yourdan, 1975; etc.) and modular system design (Berman and Ashrafi, 1993; Huang and Kusiak, 1998; Levin, 1998; etc.)
    11. Design on the basis of grammar description for composable systems as in software engineering (Shaw and Garlan, 1996; etc.).
    12. Special artificial intelligence approaches on the basis of expert systems (knowledge based systems), e.g., R1 / MICON (Gupta et al., 1993; McDermot, 1982; Sykes and White, 1989; etc.) for computer engineering, VLSI design, etc. (Braha and Maimon, 1998; Gero and Sudweeks, 1998; etc.).
    13. The Design Structure Matrix (DSM) methods (MIT, etc.)
    14. Combinatorial Synthesis as Hierarchical Morphological Multicriteria Design (HMMD) Approach (Levin, 1998; Levin, 2006)
    15. Simulation based design.
    16. Multi-level logic synthesis
    17. Synthesis from component libraries (Yoad Listig, Moshe Y. Vardi)
    18. Hybrid methods
    19. Meta-modeling environments

    Some specific system design / intergration problems for hierarchical modular systems
    (from the viewpoint of "Combinatorial Engineering", Levin, since 1998):

    1. Basic system design:
    1.1. Design of system hierarchical (tree-like) model
    1.2. Design of a system as a wholeness.
    1.3. Synthesis or integration of a composite system.
    1.4. Multistage planning as the design of multistage
    (series, parallel-series) composite strategy.
    2. System improvement, reengineering:
    2.1. Detection of system bottlenecks (e.g., system components, group of components, system structure).
    2.2. Generation of system improvement actions.
    2.3. Scheduling of the system improvement actions.
    2.4. Aggregation of modular system solutions.
    3. Strategic system design (under uncertainty):
    3.1. One-stage strategic system design.
    3.2. Multistage system design.
    3.3. Combinatorial evolution of system, forecasting


  • Journal of Systems Integration (Kluwer/Springer)
  • Design Studies (Elsevier)
  • Research in Engineering Design (Springer)
  • J. of Engineering Design
  • IEEE Trans. on SMC
  • Proc. of the IEEE
  • Computer Aided Design (CAD) (Elsevier)
  • Eur. J. of Operational Research (Elsevier)
  • IEEE Trans. Software Engineering
  • Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications (Wiley)
  • Advances in Engineering Software (Elsevier)
  • Engineering Cybernetics
  • Systems Research
  • J. of the ORS
  • Decision Sciences
  • AI Magazine
  • ASME J. Mech. Design
  • Information Fusion (Elsevier)
  • Applied Intelligence (Springer)
  • Informatica (LI) (IOS Press)
  • Int. J. on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (Springer)

    Basic Applications

    1. Mechantronics
    2. Software
    3. Manufacturing Systemns (e.g, FMS)
    4. Electronic systems
    5. Computer Systems
    6. VLSI and Integrated Curcuit
    7. Combinatorial Chemistry (drug design, synthesis of materials in Chemistry and Biotechnology)
    8. Civil engineering
    9. Material engineeirng
    10. Socio-Economical Systems (plans, strategies, teams, etc.)
    11. Industrial Cyber Physical Systems "iCyPhy"

    Some Basic Models/Method (combinatorial, etc.)

    1. Multiple-Choice Problem
    2. Integer Quadratic Problem
    3. Integer Non-linear Programming
    4. Morphological Analysis (and its modifications)
    5. Design Structure Matrix (DSM) methods
    6. Morphological Clique Problem (within framework of Hierarchical Morphological Design approach)
    7. Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programing
    8. Grammar models
    9. Meta-modeling
    10. Logical methods
    11. AI-techniques

    Research Centers

  • Stanford Center for Integrated Systems
  • C.A. Floudas (Computer-Aided Systems Lab., Princeton Univ.)
  • Panos M. Pardalos (Center for Applied Optimization, Univ. of Florida)
  • Research Group on Systems Integration (Dept. of Systems & Information Engineering, Univ. of Virginia)
    (transportation systems, wireless systems)

  • Inst. for Software Integrated Systems (ISIS), School of Engineering, Vanderbilt Univ.
  • Swedish Morphological Society (Tom Ritchey) (including projects, publications, etc.)
  • Ritchey Consulting
  • Prof. Hod Lipson, Cornell Computational Synthesis Lab CCSL (Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell Univ.)
  • Graduate School of System Design and Management (Japan's Keio Univ., Tokyo)
  • Singapore University of Technology and Design SUTD (open doors: Apr. 2012)
  • Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Dept. of EE and CS, California Univertsity at Berkeley (multi-level logic synthesis, wireless sensor networks, design methodology, hybrid systems, embedded systems, VLSI design, Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems 'iCyPhy', systems of systems, etc.)
  • Prof. Richard M. Murray, Control and Dynamical Systems, California Institute of Technology (Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems 'iCyPhy', Networked Control Systems, Automatic synthesis of control protocols, etc.)

    Projects and Programs

  • Systems Integration for Manufacturing Applications (SIMA) Program (NIST)


  • Books
    1. C. Alexander, Notes on the Synthesis of Form. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1964.
    2. N.M. Alexandrov, and M.Y. Hussaini, (Eds.), Multidisciplinary Design Optimization: State of the Art (Proceedigns in Applied Mathematics Series; No. 80), SIAM, 1997.
    3. G.S. Altshuller, Creativity as Exact Science. The Theory of the Solution of Inventive Problems. London: Gordon and Breach Science Publisher, 1984.
    4. R.U. Ayres, Technological Forecasting and Long Range Planning. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969.
    5. T.M. Blessing, A. Chakrabarti, DRM, a Design Research Methodology. Springer, London, 2009.
    6. G. Booch, Object Oriented Development. Redwood City, California: The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company, 1991.
    7. D. Braha, and O. Maimon, A Mathematical Theory of Design: Foundations, Algorithms and Applications. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1998.
    8. D.M. Buede, The Engineering Design of Systems: Models and Methods. New York: J.Wiley and Sons, 1999.
    9. A. Chakrabarti, (ed.), Engineering Design Synthesis: Understanding, Approaches and Tools. Springer, London, 2002.
    10. Ch.A. Floudas, Nonlinear and Mixed-Integer Optimization: Fundamentals and Applications (Topics in Chemical Engineering). New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
    11. Ch.A. Floudas, Deterministic Global Optimization. Boston: Kluwer, 1999.
    12. Ch.A. Floudas, and P. Pardalos, (Eds.), State of the Art in Global Optimization: Computational Methods and Applications. Boston: Kluwer, 1996.
    13. J. Gero, and F. Sudweeks, (Eds.), Advances in Formal Design Methods. Boston: Kluwer, 1996.
    14. J. Gero, and F. Sudweeks, (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence in Design'98. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1998.
    15. A. Kusiak, Engineering Design: Products, Processes, and Systems. New York: Academic Press, 1999.
    16. M.Sh. Levin, Combinatorial Engineering of Decomposable Systems, Kluwer (now: Springer), 1998.
    17. M.Sh. Levin, Composite Systems Decisions. Springer, 2006.
    18. M.Sh. Levin, Decision Support Technology for Modular Systems. Electronic book. 341 pp. (in Russian). 2013.
    19. M.Sh. Levin, Modular System Design and Evaluation. Springer, 473 p., 2015 (Due: Sep.2014).
    20. K. Miettinen, Nonlinear Multiobjective Optimization. Boston: Kluwer, 1999.
    21. R. de Neufville, Architecting/Designing Engineering Systems Using Real Options. ESD Internal Symposium, MIT, Engineering Systems Division, Cambridge, MA, 2002.
    22. Tom Ritchey, Wicked Problems - Social Messes. Decision Support Modelling with Morphological Analysis. Springer, 2011.
    23. N.F.M. Roozenburg, J. Eekels, Product Design: Fundamentals and Methods. Wiley, Chichester, 1995.
    24. M. Shaw, and D. Garlan, Software Archicture: Perspectives on an Emerging Disicpline. New York: Prentice hall, 1996.
    25. R.B. Statnikov, and J. Matusov, Multicriteria Optimization and Engineering. New York: Chapman and Hall, 1995.
    26. R.B. Statnikov, Multicriteria Design: Optimization and Identification. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1999.
    27. R.E. Steuer, Multiple Criteria Optimization: Theory, Computation, and Application, New York: J.Wiley \& Sons, 1986.
    28. N.P. Suh, Axiomatic Design - Advances and Applications. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 2001.
    29. E. Yourdan, Techniques of Program Structure and Design. NJ: Prentice-Hall, Englewoods Cliffs, 1975.
    30. F. Zwicky, Discovery Invention, Research Through the Morphological Approach. New York: McMillan, 1969.

  • Surveys
    1. T.R. Browning, Applying the design structure matrix to system decomposition and integration problems: a review. IEEE Trans. on Engineering Management, 48(3), 292-306, 2001.
    2. W. Shen, Q. Hao, H. Mak, J. Neelamkavil, H. Xie, J. Dickinson, R. Thomas, A. Pardasani, H. Xue, Systems integration and collaboration in architecture, engineering, construction, and facilities management: a review. Advanced Engineering Informatics 24, 196207, 2010.
    3. J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, T.D. Altus, M. Phillips, R.R. Sandusky Jr., Bilevel integrated system synthesis for concurrent and distributed processing. AIAA Journal, 41(10), 1996-2003, 2008.
    4. J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Integrated system-of-system synthesis. AIAA Journal, 46(5), 1072-1080, 2008.
    5. J. J. Sztipanovits, X. Koutsoukos, G. Karsai, N. Kottenstette, P. Antsakis, V. Gupta, B. Goodwine, J. Baras, S. Wang, Toward a Science of Cyber-Physical System Integration.
    Proc. of the IEEE, 100(1), 29-44, 2012.

  • Basic Papers
    1. O. Berman, and N. Ashrafi, Optimization Models for Reliability of Modular Software Systems. IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering, 19(11), 1119-1123, 1993
    2. T.R. Browning, Process Integration Using the Design Structure Matrix. Systems Engineering, 5(3), 180-193, 2002.
    3. I.E. Grossmann, Mixed-Integer Non-Linear Programming Techniques for the Synthesis of Engineering Systems. Research in Engineering Design, 1(2/3), pp. 205-228, 1990.
    4. A.P. Gupta, W.P. Birmingham, and D.P. Siewiorek, Automating the Design of Computer Systems. IEEE Trans. on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 12(4), 473-487, 1993.
    5. G. Harhalakis, C.P. Lin, R. Nagi, and J.M. Proth, Hierarchical Decision Making in Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems. In: Proc. of the Third Intl. Conf. on CIM. IEEE CS Press, 15-24, 1992.
    6. C.C. Huang, A. Kusiak, Modularity in Design of Products and Systems. Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part A, 28(1), 66-77, 1998.
    7. P.S. Krasnoshekov, V.V. Morozov, and V.V. Fedorov, Decomposition in Design Problems. Engineering Cybernetics, No. 2, pp. 7-17, 1979 (in Russian).
    8. D.C. Liebisch and A. Jain, JESSI COMMON FRAMEWORK Design Management - The Means to Configuration and Execution of the Design Process. In: Proc. of Eur. Design Automation Conference EURO-DAC'92, CS Press, Los Alamitos, pp. 552-557, 1992.
    9. J. McDermott, R1: A Rule-Based Configurer of Computer Systems. Artificial Intelligence, 19(2), pp. 39-88, 1982.
    10. T. Ritchey, Analysis and Synthesis - on Scientific Method based on a Study by Bernhard Riemann. Systems Research, 8(4), 331-360, 1981.
    11. T. Ritchey, Problem Structuring using Computer-Aided Morphological Analysis. J. of the Operational Research Society, 57, 792-801, 2006.
    12. I.M. Sobol, An Efficient Approach to Multicriteria Optimum Design Problems. Surveys on Mathematics in Industry, Vol. 1, pp. 259-281, 1992.
    13. E.A. Sykes and C.C. White, III, Multiobjective Intelligent Computer-Aided Design. IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 21,No. 6, pp. 1498-1511, 1989.
    14. R.J. Waller, The Synthesis of Hierarchical Structure: Techniques and Applications. Decision Sciences, Vol. 7, pp. 659-674, 1976.
    15. M.L. Maher, Process Models for Design Synthesis. AI Magazine, 11(4), pp. 49-58, 1990.
    16. D.B. Yudin, Systems for Synthesis of Knowledge. Reports of Russian Academy of Sciences. 315(4), 809-812, 1990 (in Russian)
    17. R. Kroshnamachari and P. Papalambros, Hierarchical Decomposition Synthesis in Optimal Systems Design. Trans. ASME J. Mech. Design, 119(4), 448-457, Dec. 1997.
    18. R. Kroshnamachari and P. Papalambros, Optimal Hierarchical Decomposition Synthesis Using Integer Programming. Trans. ASME J. Mech. Design, 119(4), 440-447, Dec. 1997.
    19. M.Sh. Levin, System Synthesis with Morphological Clique Problem: Fusion of Subsystem Evaluation Decisions. Information Fusion, 2(3), 225-237, 2001.
    20. M.Sh. Levin, Towards Combinatorial Analysis, Adaptation, and Planning of Human-Computer Systems. Applied Intelligence, 16(3), 235-247, 2002.
    21. M.Sh. Levin, L.V. Sokolova, Hierarchical Combinatorial Planning of Medical Treatment. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 73(1), 3-11, 2004.
    22. M.Sh. Levin, M.A. Firer, Hierarchical Morphological Design of Immunoassay Technology. Computers in Biology and Medicine, 35(3) 229-245, 2005.
    23. M.Sh. Levin, Modular System Synthesis: Example for Composite Packaged Software. IEEE Trans. on SMC, Part C, 35(4), 544-553, 2005.
    24. S. Niema, J. Sztipanovits, G. Karsai, K. Butts, Constraint-based design-space exploration and model synthesis. EMSOFT, 290-305, 2003.
    25. J. Werner, J. Mathe, S. Duncavage, B.A. Malin, A. Ledeczi, J. Sztipanovits, Platform-Based Design for Clinical Information Systems. Proc. of 5th Int. Conf. on Industrial Informatics INDIN 2007, Vienna, Austria, 2007.
    26. G. Karsai, J. Sztipanovits, A. Ledeczi, T. Bapty, Model-integrated development of embedded systems. Proc. of the IEEE, 91(1), 145-164, 2003.
    27. K. Balasubramanian, A. Cokhale, G. Karsai, J. Sztipanovits, S. Niema, Developing applications using model-driven design environments. IEEE Computer, 33(2), 33-40, 2006.
    28. A. Ledeczi, A. Bakau, M. Maroti, P. Volgyesi, G. Nordstrom, J. Sorinkle, G. Karsai, Composing domain-specific design environments. Computer, 34(11), 44-51, 2001.
    29. G. Karsai, M. Maroti, A. Ledeczi, J. Gray, J. Sztipanovits, Composition and cloning in modeling and meta-modeling. IEEE Trans. on Control System Technology, 12(2), 263-278, 2004.
    30. A.K. Noor, S.L. Venneri, ISE: intelligent synthesis environment for future aerospace systems. IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, 23(4), 31-44, 2008
    31. T. Kurtoglu, M.I. Campbell, Automated synthesis of electromechanical design configurations from empirical analysis of function to form mapping. J. of Engineering Design, 20(1), 2009.
    32. T. Kurtoglu, A. Swantner, M.I. Campbell, Automating the conceptual design process: From black box to component selection. Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design, 24(1), 49-62, 2010.
    33. N. Ozay, U. Topcu, T. Wongpiromsam, R.M. Murray, Distributed synthesis of control protocols for smart camera networks. In: 2011 Int. Conf. on Cyber-Physical Systems (ICCPS), 2011.
    34. M.Sh. Levin, Towards Combinatorial Evolution of Composite Systems. Expert Systems with Applications, 40(4), 1342-1351, 2013. (2011 Journal IF = 2.203)
    35. M.Sh. Levin, Modular design and improvement of the management system in the smart home with the use of interval multiset estimates.
    Journal of Communications Technology and Electronics, vol. 58, no. 6, 584-593, 2013. (Journal 2011'IF=0.383)
    (journal site)
    Levin M.Sh., Modular design and improvement of management in smart homes with interval multiset estimates.
    Electronic Scientific Journal "Information Processes", 12(2), 141-154, 2012 (in Russian)

    36. Robert K. Brayton, Richard Rudell, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Albert R. Wang, MIS: A Multi-level Logic Optimization System. IEEE Trans. on CAD, No. 6, 1062-1081, Nov. 1987,
    37. Zachary J. Oster, Reasoning with qualitative preferences to develop optimal component-based systems. In: Proc. of the 2013 Int. Conf. on Software Engineering, IEEE Press, 1456-1458, 2013.
    38. J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.S. Agte, R.R. Sandusky Jr., Bilevel integrated system synthesis. AIAA Journal, 38(1), 164-172, 2000.
    39. L.A. Schmit, Structural synthesis - Int genesis and development. AIAA Journal, 19(10), 1249-1263, 1981.
    40. H.J. Choo, J. Hammond, I.D. Tommelein, S.M. Austin, G. Ballard, DePlan: a tool for integrated design management. Automation in Construction, 13, 313-326, 2004.
    41. Simon Austin, Andrew Baldwin, Baizhan Li, Poul Waskett, Analytical design planning technique (ADePT): a dependency structure matrix tool to schedule the building design process. Construction Management and Economics, 18(2), 173-182, 2000.
    42. N.P. Suh, Axiomatic design theory for systems. Research in Engineering Design, 10, 189-209, 1998.
    43. D. Tang, R. Zhu, J. Tang, R. Xu, R. He, Product design knowledge management based on design structure matrix. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 24(2), 159-166, 2010.
    44. D. Tang, G. Zhangt, S. Dai, Design as integration of axiomatic design and design structure matrix. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 25(3), 610-619, 2009.
    45. Yoad Lustig, Moshe Y. Vardi, Synthesis from component library. Int. J. on Software Tools for Technology Transfer, 15(5-6), 603-618, 2013.
    Preliminary analogue: Yoad Lustig, Moshe Y. Vardi, Synthesis from component library. In: Luca de Alfaro (ed), Proc. of 12th Int. Conf. FOSSACS 2009, LNCS 5504, 395-409, 2009.
    46. Yoad Lustig, Sumit Nain, Moshe Y. Vardi, Synthesis from probabilistic components. In: LIPIcs-Leibniz Int. Proc. in Informatics CSL'11, vol. 12, 412-427, 2011.
    Journal article: Yoad Lustig, Sumit Nain, Moshe Y. Vardi, Synthesis from probabilistic components. Logical Methods in Computer Science 10(2), 1-24, 2014. (or electronic preprint)
    47. Sumit Nain, Moshe Vardi, Synthesizing probabilsitic composers. Foundations of Software Science and Computational Structures. Springer, 421-436, 2012.
    48. O. Kupferman, M.Y. Vardi, Synthesis with incomplete information. In: 2nd Int. Conf. on Temporal Logic, 91-106, Kluwer, 1997.
    49. Sven Schewe, Synthesis for probabilistic environments. In: Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis. Springer, 245-259, 2006.
    50. Dana Fisman, Orna Kupferman, Yoad Lustig, Rational synthesis. In: Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis nof Systems. Proc. of 16th Int. COnf. on Theory and Practice of Software ETAPS 2010, Springer, vol. 6015, 190-204, 2010. (or electronic preprint)

  • Electronic Preprints
    1. M.Sh. Levin, Morphological methods for design of modular systems (a survey). Electronic preprint. 20 pp., Jan. 9, 2012. [cs.SE]

    2. M.Sh. Levin, Multiset estimates and combinatorial synthesis. Electronic preprint. 30 pp., May 9, 2012. [cs.SY]

    3. M.Sh. Levin, Composition of modular telemetry system with interval multiset estimates. Electronic preprint. 9 pp., July 25, 2012. [cs.SY]

    4. M.Sh. Levin, Composite strategy for multicriteria ranking/sorting (methodological issues, examples). Electronic preprint. 24 pp., Nov. 9, 2012. [math.OC]

    5. M.Sh. Levin, Towards design of hierarchy (research survey). Electronic preprint. 36 pp., Dec. 8, 2012. [math.OC]

    6. M.Sh. Levin, Note on combinatorial engineering frameworks for hierarchical modular systems. Electronic preprint. 11 pp., Mar. 29, 2013. [math.OC]

    7. M.Sh. Levin, Improvement/extension of modular systems as combinatorial reengineering (survey). Electronic preprint. 24 pp., Apr. 17, 2013. [cs.AI]

    8. M.Sh. Levin, Note on evaluation of hierarchical modular systems. Electronic preprint. 15 pp., May 21, 2013. [cs.AI]

    9. M.Sh. Levin, Towards Detection of Bottlenecks in Modular Systems. Electronic preprint. 12 pp., June 1, 2013. [cs.AI]

    10. M.Sh. Levin, Towards Multistage Design of Modular Systems. Electronic preprint. 13 pp., June 19, 2013. [cs.AI]

    11. Yoad Lustig, Moshe Vardi, Synthesis from recursive-components libraries. Electronic preprint. 16 pp., June 2011. [cs.AI]

    12. Yoad Lustig, Sumit Nain, Moshe Vardi, Synthesis from probabilsitic components. Electronic preprint. 24 pp., July 2014. [cs.AI]

    13. Dana Fisman, Orna Kupferman, Yoad Lustig, Rational synthesis. Electronic preprint. 14 pp., Sep. 2009. [cs.AI]

  • Some Theses & Dissertations
    1. James T. Allison, Optimal Partitioning and Coordination Decisions in Decomposition-based Design Optimization. PhD Thesis, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, The Univ. of Michigan, 2008.
    2. I. Shin, Compositional Framework for Real-Time Embedded Systems. PhD Thesis, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 2006.
    3. Shridhar Jayanthi, RETROACTIVITY TO THE OUTPUT OF TRANSCRIPTION DEVICES: QUANTIFICATION AND INSULATION, PhD Thesis, Dept. of Electrical Engineering (Systems), The University of Michigan, 2012.
    4. Pengcheng Zhang, Requirement Driven Knowledge Management System Design to Support Automotive Product Development. PhD Thesis,Univ. of Greenwich, 2011.
    5. M.E. Hofmann, Automated syntehsis of multi-level combinational logic in CMOS technology. PhD Thesis, Univ. of California, 1985.
    6. T.R. Browning, Modeling and analyzing cost, schedule, and performance in complex system product development. PhD thesis, Technology, Management, and Policy Program, MIT, 1998.
    7. Jan Klett, Systematic Design of Connections under Consideration of Assembly and Disassembly related Properties. Dissertation, Technical Univ. of Berlin, 2009.
    8. Craig M. Rowles, System Integration Analysis of a Large Commercial Aircraft Engine. MS thesis, MIT, Cambridge, Febr. 1999.
    7. Tony Zambito, Using the Design Structure Matrix to Structure Automotive Hood System Development. MS thesis, MIT, SDM, Cambridge, Jan. 2000.
    8. Soo-Haeng Cho, An integrated method for managing complex engineering projects using the design structure matrix and advances simulation. MS thesis, MIT, SDM, Cambridge, 2001.
    9. R. Rosner, Modular Synthesis of Reactive Systems. PhD thesis, Weizmann Institute of Science, 1992.
    10. M.-C. Marinescu, Synthesis of Synchronous Pipelined Circuits from Hogh-Level Modular Specificaitons. PhD Thesis, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, Dec. 2002.
    11. Sumit Nain, Synthesis from Probabilistic Components. PhD Thesis, Rice Univ., Oct. 2013.